A-PHP – PsychonautWiki

Not to be confused with

A-PVP

.

alpha-Pyrrolidinohexiophenone (also known as PV-7, alpha-PHP, A-PHP, and α-PHP) is a lesser-known novel stimulant substance of the cathinone class. It is structurally related to compounds such as MDPV and is one of the successors to the designer drug cathinone analog α-PVP.

α-PHP generally comes in the form of either a fine powder or crystallized shards which users can ingest to produce powerful but short-lived euphoric stimulant effects which are comparable to those of methamphetamine and cocaine when insufflated or vaporized.[citation needed] Like its research chemical cathinone predecessors, it is has gained notoriety for its tendency to induce compulsive redosing and addictive behaviors in a large percentage of its users as well the ability to readily induce delusional states and psychosis when abused.[citation needed]

Subjective effects such as euphoria, thought acceleration, disinhibition and ego inflation when administered.

α-PHP has a short history of use and is subject to much scrutiny by the media.[citation needed] It is being used and marketed as a replacement for α-PVP (known on the street as flakka) a few years following its ban, where it has come to substitute α-PVP in many parts of the world. While initially mass synthesized in Chinese industrial laboratories, a ban on α-PHP within China’s borders has forced production to nations worldwide.[citation needed]

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of α-PHP. It has recently become commonly marketed alongside research chemical stimulants like NEP and Hexen as a legal, grey-market alternative to a-PVP, and commercially distributed through online research chemical vendors.

Chemistry

α-PHP, or α-Pyrrolidinohexanophenone, is a compound of the substituted cathinone and substituted pyrrolidine chemical classes. Its structure is comprised of hexanal bound to a phenyl ring at the 1 position and the nitrogen of a pyrrolidine ring at the 2 position.

α-PHP is the longer chain homolog of α-PVP, possessing an additional carbon on the alkyl side chain.

Pharmacology

The mechanism of action of α-PHP is unknown. Aside from a substantially shorter duration, it is believed to act similarly to the designer drug pentedrone and α-PVP, which both as a potent norepinephrinedopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRI),[1] although no substantial research on the pharmacology of this compound has yet been conducted.

This means it may effectively boost the levels of the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally remove those monoamines from the synaptic cleft. This allows dopamine and norepinephrine to accumulate within the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects.

Subjective effects

In comparison to its predecessor α-PVP, this compound has been reported as inducing slightly less anxiety, uncomfortable side effects, euphoria, and an easier comedown.

Disclaimer: The effects listed below are cited from the subjective effect index, which is based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy degree of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, although higher doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

    • Stimulation – α-PHP can be considered to be extremely stimulating and energetic, although less so than α-PVP. This encourages activities such as running, climbing and dancing, although it can also encourage sitting immobile and engaging in repetitive tasks. The particular style of stimulation which α-PHP presents can be described as forced. This means that at higher dosages it becomes difficult or impossible to keep still as jaw clenching, involuntarily bodily shakes and vibrations become present, resulting in an extreme unsteadiness of the hands and a general lack of motor control.
    • Spontaneous physical sensations – The “body high” of α-PHP can be described as a moderate to extreme euphoric tingling sensation that encompasses the entire body. It is capable of becoming overwhelming at higher dosages. This sensation maintains a consistent presence that steadily rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached.
    • Tactile enhancement – α-PHP can enhance one’s sense of touch to extreme degrees, often leading to states of sexual arousal.
    • Vibrating vision – A person’s eyeballs may begin to spontaneously wiggle back and forth in a rapid motion, causing vision to become blurry and temporarily out of focus (a condition known as nystagmus).
    • Appetite suppression
    • Focus enhancement – α-PHP has been noted as enhancing focus, but in a way that leaves the user totally fixated on whatever task at hand, however trivial.
    • Mouth numbing – In a similar fashion to that of cocaine this compound numbs the areas of the body which it touches, these areas can include the nostrils, gums, mouth and throat of the user.
    • Abnormal heartbeat – Due to the potency of its rush, α-PHP can cause various uncomfortable or painful sensations in the heart, especially when abused or used for extended periods. Those with familial or personal heart issues are discouraged from using this drug in its most potent routes of administration.
    • Increased blood pressure – α-PHP, especially when it is vaporized or injected, can lead to sudden spikes of blood pressure that may manifest in an extremely uncomfortable “exploding heart” sensation.
    • Increased heart rate
    • Dehydration – Dry mouth and dehydration are a universal experience with α-PHP and are a product of an increased heart rate, adrenergic activity and the motivation to engage in strenuous physical activities. While it is important to avoid becoming dehydrated, especially when out dancing in a hot environment, there is a potential possibility of suffering from water intoxication through over-drinking. Therefore it is advised that users simply sip at water and be mindful of their water in-take.
    • Dry mouth
    • Difficulty urinating – Higher doses of α-PHP result in an overall difficulty when it comes to urination, an effect that is temporary and typically harmless.
    • Headaches – This typically can occur towards the end of the experience, but can sometimes happen during one as well.
    • Increased perspiration
    • Muscle spasms
    • Restless leg syndrome
    • Vasoconstriction – α-PHP can be considered very vasoconstricting at higher doses, and is on par with that of amphetamine and methamphetamine.
    • Teeth grinding – This component can be considered to be less intense when compared with that of MDMA, though becomes more present at high doses.
    • Seizure – α-PHP may lower the seizure threshold in some individuals, especially when it is misused.
  • The cognitive effects of α-PHP can be broken down into several components which progressively intensify proportional to dosage. The ample head space of α-PHP is described by many as one of extreme mental stimulation and powerful euphoria. It contains a large number of typical stimulant cognitive effects, particularly those of the cathinone or pyrrolidine classes of drugs. The most prominent of these cognitive effects generally include:
    • Disinhibition
    • Cognitive euphoria – A euphoria very similar to amphetamine or cocaine is present as well as feelings of well-being and contentedness which are likely a direct result of serotonin and dopamine accumulation in the brain’s reward pathways.
    • Analysis enhancement – Users report that this effect typically only occurs at low doses, and becomes increasingly more impairing as one increases their intake.
    • Anxiety & Paranoia – α-PHP can lead to states of extreme anxiety and paranoia when dosed too highly or frequently, which is why eyeballing this substance is strongly discouraged. The anxiety and paranoia this compound produces shares many features of the paranoia that can be induced by methamphetamine or cocaine, and typically happens during the come down phase of the experience.
      • Feelings of impending doom – This typically is experienced when the substance is abused, but can happen at higher than needed doses, or the comedowns of binges. It can also happen spontaneously, although this tends to be rare.
    • Information processing suppression
    • Ego inflation – Similar to the ego inflation of cocaine or methamphetamine, α-PHP can temporarily induce states of egomania at its peak.
    • Compulsive redosing – While a high tendency to compulsive redose is a hallmark of this class of drug, α-PHP has been reported as being slightly less compulsive than its predecessor α-PVP. Nevertheless, users are advised to use extreme caution in not losing control when on this drug.
    • Immersion enhancement
    • Motivation enhancement – This effect provides short-lived states of extreme motivation, but due to the cognitively narrowing aspects of its action, rarely ever translates into productive action.
    • Increased libido – α-PHP, like its predecessor α-PVP can induce states of extreme sexual arousal due to its powerful disinhibiting effects
    • Increased music appreciation
    • Thought acceleration
    • Time distortion – Strong feelings of time compression are common within α-PHP and increase in the perception of perceived experience is greatly increased
    • Wakefulness
    • Psychosis – This compound may induce psychosis if it is compulsively binged upon for prolonged periods of time. However, the likelihood of psychosis on this compound has been reported to be noticeably less than that of A-PVP.

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

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This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding or correcting it.
We also recommend that you conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational α-PHP use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because α-PHP has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried α-PHP within the community suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

α-PHP has been reported to be the cause, or a significant contributory cause, of death in suicides and overdoses caused by combinations of drugs.[2]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other short-lived highly dopaminergic stimulants, the chronic use of α-PHP can be considered highly addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of α-PHP develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 – 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 – 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). α-PHP presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of α-PHP all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Psychosis

α-PHP, like other strongly dopaminergic stimulants, can result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions).[3][4] A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely.[5][6] The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.[7]

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.

  • MDMA – The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with other amphetamines.
  • Cocaine – This combination may increase strain on the heart.
  • Stimulants – A-PHP can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as it can increase one’s heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
  • 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH – Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
  • Alcohol – Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
  • DXM – Combinations with DXM should be strictly avoided due to DXM’s effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
  • MXE – Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
  • Tramadol – Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold.[8] Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.

Serotonin syndrome risk

Combinations with the following substances can cause dangerously high serotonin levels. Serotonin syndrome requires immediate medical attention and can be fatal if left untreated.

Legal status

  • Austria: α-PHP is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich).[citation needed]
  • Brazil: As of September 7, 2018, all cathinone analogues are controlled substances considered illegal to possess, use and distribute. This was made possible due to a blanket ban law appended to Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[10]
  • China: α-PHP is a controlled substance in China as of October 2015.[11]
  • Italy: The President of the Republic of Italy classified cathinone and all structurally derived analogues (including pyrovalerone analogues) as Narcotics on January 2012. [12]
  • Sweden: Sweden’s public health agency suggested to classify α-PHP as narcotic on June 1, 2015.[13]
  • United Kingdom: α-PHP is a Class B drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the cathinone catch-all clause.[14]
  • United States: α-PHP is unscheduled in the United States. However, it may fall under the scope of the Federal Analog Act if it is intended for human consumption given its similarity to α-PVP, a scheduled substance.[15]

See also

External links

References

  1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2602954
  2. Suicide attempt with a mix of synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones: Case report of non-fatal intoxication with AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA, alpha-PHP, and 4-CMC (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0379073816000372
  3. http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/emerging-trends
  4. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | [1]
  5. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | [2]
  6. Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780195030570.
  7. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | [3]
  8. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
  9. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  10. New blanket ban on synthetic illegal drugs is approved (Portuguese) | http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/noticias/-/asset_publisher/FXrpx9qY7FbU/content/combate-a-drogas-ilicitas-sinteticas-fica-mais-facil/219201/pop_up?_101_INSTANCE_FXrpx9qY7FbU_viewMode=print&_101_INSTANCE_FXrpx9qY7FbU_languageId=pt_BR
  11. http://www.sfda.gov.cn/WS01/CL0056/130753.html
  12. http://www.politicheantidroga.it/media/491607/decreto%20ministero%20salute%2029%20dicembre%202011.pdf
  13. https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/nyhetsarkiv/2015/juni/23-nya-amnen-kan-klassas-som-narkotika-eller-halsofarlig-vara/
  14. United Kingdom. (2010). Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (S.I. 2010/1207). London: The Stationery Office Limited. Retrieved February 9, 2018, from https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2010/1207/made
  15. http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/rules/2014/fr0128.htm>

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